Theses / Dissertations 2013

 

MASTER

Author: Rosilda Mendes da Silva
Original Title: Evaluation of liver regeneration diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids: experimental study in rats

Introduction: It has been reported that administration of omega 3 fatty acids plays an important role in gastrointestinal surgery and can protect hepatocytes through the peroxidation of liver cells in liver regeneration using anti-oxidative and antiinflammatorymechanisms after partial hepatectomy. Objectives: Assess liver regeneration in rats which underwent 60% partial hepatectomy with and without the action of diet supplemented with omega 3 fatty acids through the study of regenerated liver weight, laboratory parameters of liver function and histologystudy. Methods: We used 36 adult maleWinstar rats, weighing between 195 and 330 grams divided into control and omega 3 group. The animals underwent 60% partial hepatectomy and the study group received supplementation with Omega 3 by gavage and were killed after 24 hours, 72 hours and seven days. The regeneration assessment occurred through analysis of weight gain liver, liver function response by laboratory samples and histological study by assessing the number of mitoses in parts of the liver stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Results: Diet supplemented groups showed no statistical difference (p> 0.05) for the evolution of their weights. The efficiency of the administration of omega 3 fatty acids in liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy presented that GGT levels showed a statistically significant reduction (p <0.05), which may reflect in liver regeneration. When measured the mitotic index in conventional histology with hematoxylin-eosin, it was found that there was no characterization of positive or negative interference between time 24 hours, 72 hours, seven days.Conclusion: Supplementation with omega 3 fatty acids in rats which underwent 60% partial liver resection showed benefits related to liver regeneration.

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 Artigo: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Rosilda+Mendes+da+Silva

 

 

 

Author: Tamara Rubia Cavalcante Guimarães Coutinho
Original Title: Evaluation of hemostasis after hepatic resection using electrocautery and fibrin sealant. Experimental study in rats

OBJECTIVE: To compare between electrocautery and fibrin sealant hemostasis in rats after partial hepatectomy. METHODS: we used 24 Wistar rats, which were submitted to 30% hepatic resection, divided into two groups of 12 animals each: Group Electrocautery and Group Tachosil(r). These animals were evaluated after three and 14 days. We assessed the presence of complications, laboratory tests and histological exam of the recovered liver. RESULTS: the presence of abscess was more prevalent in the electrocautery group. The observed adhesions were more pronounced in the electrocautery group, both in frequency and in intensity, after three and 14 days. There were no deaths in either group. As for laboratory analysis, after three days the hematocrit was lower in the TachoSil(r) Group. The elevation of AST and ALT were more pronounced in the electrocautery group (p = 0.002 and p = 0.004) in three days. Histological analysis of specimens collected on the third day after surgery showed similar results in both groups for the presence of polymorphonuclear cells, whereas mononuclear was more evident in the TachoSil(r) group. We also observed that angiogenesis, although present in both groups, was more pronounced in the TachoSil(r) group (p = 0.030). However, on the 14th day angiogenesis was more pronounced in the electrocautery group, but without statistical significance. CONCLUSION: hemostasis achieved by the groups was similar; however, the use of electrocautery was associated with infections, adhesions at higher grades and elevated liver enzymes.

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 Artigo: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Tamara+Rubia+Cavalcante+Guimar%C3%A3es+Coutinho

 

 

Author: Widlani Sousa Montenegro
Original Title: Evaluation of liver regeneration with use of diet supplemented with L-arginine

Introduction: The ability to understand the liver regeneration allowed therapeutic innovations in surgical treatment of liver diseases. It has been attempted to identify factors that may favor the triggering mechanisms of this process. The administration of amino acid, including L-arginine, has been shown beneficial effects in animal liver regeneration. The aspects of physiological regulation of immunonutrition may show promise in post-hepatectomy prognosis, significantly contributing in the treatment of liver diseases. Objective: To evaluate the liver regeneration in rats subjected to 60% partial hepatectomy with and without the action of the diet supplemented with L-arginine by: change weight of regenerated liver, laboratory parameters of liver function and pathology studies. Method: 36 rats of the Wistar strain, males, adults, weighing between 195 and 330 grams were separated in two groups (control and L-arginine). The animals were subjected to 60% partial hepatectomy, were killed in 24 hours, 72 hours and seven days after surgery. The first or control group received ration and administration of saline by gavage. The second group in addition to the ration received supplementation with Larginine by gavage. The evaluation of regeneration occurred through liver weight gain, estimated by the formula KWON; alterations in laboratory test results collected on the day of death and by evaluation of the number of mitoses in parts of the liver stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin. Results: The comparison of regeneration to evaluate the weight increase, using the formula KNON, between the control and L-arginine groups showed no benefit of supplementation with L-arginine. The evaluation using the weight in the first 24 hours, was observed significantly effect of supplementation of L-arginine (p=0,008) intergroup. Laboratory exams showed that in relation to liver function only ALP had become more increased in the arginine group (p<0, 04). Creatinine and Urea were significantly increased in the first 24 hours independent of the group. In the evaluation of regeneration by the number of mitoses was observed no difference between the two groups. The first 24 hours in the group supplemented with L-arginine has a greater number of mitoses compared intergroup(p=0,03) Conclusion: Supplementation with Larginine in rats by 60% hepatectomized, did not show benefits in liver regeneration.The first 24 hours postoperative in animals supplemented with L-arginine favor weight gain and liver cell proliferation.

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 Artigo: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25252207

 

 

Author: Cibelle Ribeiro Guimarães
Original Title: Evaluation of hepatic regeneration with diet supplemented with l-glutamine: Experimental study in rats

Introduction: It is well known the liver's ability to regenerate body pass though the fact hyperplasia and hypertrophy to recover lost tissue, either by assault toxic drug, infectious, traumatic or surgical. In human liver regeneration occurs similarly to experimental models, the treatment of choice are resections for most benign and malignant diseases of the liver. So increasingly arise studies seeking factors that affect the process of regeneration and L-glutamine has been identified as one of them. Aim: To evaluate liver regeneration in rats submitted to 60% partial hepatectomy with and without the action of diet supplemented with L-glutamine through the study of regenerated liver weight gain, laboratory parameters of liver function and histology. Methods: used 36 Wistar adult male, weighing between 195 and 330 grams, divided into two groups (control and glutamine). The animals underwent a partial hepatectomy approximately 60% dead at 24 h, 72 h seven days of operation. The glutamine group received standard chow plus gavage supplementation with L-glutamine. The regeneration was evaluated by weight gain, liver using the formula Kwon for abnormal laboratory test results collected on the day of death and by observation of the number of mitoses in parts of the liver stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Results: Taking into account the increase in liver mass was regeneration in both groups, but the control was better. Regarding laboratory tests, increased AST in glutamine group at 72 hours and seven days, and even indirect bilirubin elevation in 24 hours. Evaluating between groups, GGT increased in the control, whereas albumin values have risen over the glutamine group. Observing mitosis in 72h in the glutamine group was significant. Conclusion: The use of L-glutamine supplemented with 60% hepatectomized mice showed no benefit to regeneration. The first 72 h postoperatively in animals supplemented with L-glutamine are critical for cell proliferation observed the greatest number of mitoses.

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 Artigo: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_pdf&pid=S0100-69912014000200117&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=pt

 

 

 

Author: Maria Madalena Macedo Pires Ferreira
Original Title: Comparative study of the action of two hemostatic agents on hepatectomy: experimental research in rats

Introduction: The success of liver resections is directly related to the control of bleeding, prevention of complications associated with intraperitoneal bleeding and reducing the morbidity and mortality rates. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the hemostasis in two groups of rats which underwent hepatectomy using two hemostatic agents, TachoSil ® and Gelfoan ®, evaluating mortality between the groups, blood biochemistry, the macro and microscopic liver aspects after hepatectomy. Method: 24 rats (Rattusnorvegicus - Wistar) were submitted to this study and were randomly divided into two groups of 12 animals each called Gelfoam® and TachoSil® group. Each group of 12 was divided into two groups of six. The animals were anesthetized and underwent laparotomy for hepatectomy of the right lobe using the hemostatic determined for each group. In both groups, TachoSil ® and Gelfoam®, the hemostatic was placed on the liver open area pressing it for two minutes. Then we proceeded to the synthesis of the abdominal wall. On the third and on the fourteenth day of post operatory 6 animals, in each group, underwent reoperation to review the cavity seeking evidence of bruising, collections, abscesses, fistulas and adhesions. Blood was collected by puncture of the caudal vein cava for measurement of leukocytes, hemoglobin and hematocrit, AST, ALT and ALP. Liver segments that were removed were fixed in 10% formalin and sent for histological analysis. Result: Hemostasis was achieved equally in both groups. One hundred of the rats in Gelfoam® group had adhesion and in TachoSil® group only 41.6%; only one animal from Gelfoam® group had intra-abdominal abscess. Edema in TachoSil ® group was higher in the second observation period with statistically significant difference (p<0,05). In the same group AST and ALT were higher while hematocrit and hemoglobin levels were lower with statistic significant difference (p<0.05) when compared to the Gelfoam ® group. Conclusion: Hemostasis was not different between the groups; Geolfoan ® group had greater inflammatory and infectious reaction; In Tachosil® group hepatocellular injury was more severe.

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Author: Joenvilly Cardinele Rêgo Oliveira Azevedo
Original Title: Hemostasis after hepatic resection in rats using two hemostatic agents: Tachosil® and Surgicel®

Introduction: Despite advances that have reduced the occurrence of complications during and after hepatic interventions, yet some complications are noteworthy, among them bleeding, which directly affect the prognosis of patients. Among the various techniques implemented for the control of bleeding, hemostatic highlight the topics that have proven effective as adjuncts to aid in hemostasis. Objective: To study hemostasis in rats undergoing liver resection using two topical hemostatic agents, TachoSil ® and Surgicel ®, evaluating mortality, blood biochemistry, macroscopic and histological analysis of the liver after hepatectomy. Methods: 24 Wistar rats were divided into two groups (n = 12) and subjected to partial hepatectomy: group Tachosil®: hemostasis with fibrin sealant and Group Surgicel®: hemostasis with cellulose oxized. Six animals from each group were reoperated on the 3rd postoperative day and the other six on the 14th postoperative day for laboratory analysis, exploration of the cavity and histopathological evaluation of the liver remnant. Results: No death of animals in both groups. Macroscopic analysis showed that the Group TachoSil ® was lower degree of adherence (58.4% Grade 0), and the absence of abscess and collections, both in the 3rd as the 14th POD. According to laboratory testing, the values of leukocytes were higher in Group Surgicel ®. Regarding the values of hematocrit, showed that there was a decrease in Surgicel ® Group and rise in the group TachoSil ®, but only the latter difference was significant. There was an increase in ALT Surgicel ® group, but without significant difference. Histological analysis of the D3 and D14 days, there was a predominance of acute inflammatory phase in Surgicel ® group, characterized by the presence of edema and polymorphonuclear as moderate to severe. Conclusion:The results concerning the hemostatic action were similar in both groups surveyed. Adhesions were found in both groups, with a higher prevalence in Group Surgicel ®. There was no abscess and / or collections in Group TachoSil ®.

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Author: Marcus Vinícius Wanka
Original Title: Evaluation of the use of the herbal remedy Aloe vera in comparison to the use of low power laser (Helium-neon) in wound healing in oral mucosa of rats

INTRODUCTION: Many factors whether endogenous or exogenous both positively and negatively influence the healing process of wounds. Among these external factors influence positively in the herbal and tissue repair lasers. The use of herbal medicine is based on the extraction of an active principle that play effective role in healing. But the use of lasers based on the biomodulation performed by them via wavelength beneficially influencing the process of cell repair. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of herbal Aloe vera and compare with the use of low level laser therapy on wound healing in oral mucosa of mice and evaluated microscopically variables: edema, neovascularization, formation of fibrosis and inflammatory reaction. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Were used 30 Wistar male rats, which were divided into two groups, in which two incisions were made in the oral vestibule on both sides of the superior maxillary arch, one on the right and another on the left. So it was agreed the right to be the control wound and the other for the object of study. Fifteen rats were placed in group Aloe vera and 15 in the laser group. Each group of 15 animals were divided into three subgroups: 24 hours, 48 hours and 1 week, thus having six groups of animals. RESULTS: The Aloe vera was effective in reducing edema of the wound when compared 24 hours versus 48 hours and 24 hours versus 1 week subgroups (p=0,048 and p=0,008, respectively). Analyzed the variable fibrosis, the laser is more effective when equated subgroups 24 hours versus 1 week and compared to control and Aloe vera (p = 0.048). Another condition found was the reduction of inflammation in the subgroup 1 week of laser group when compared with the same subgroup of Aloe vera group. CONCLUSION: No results were found to support the use of Aloe vera as herbal medicine in the healing process, since improvement in edema were only found when compared 24 hours versus 48 hours and 24 hours versus 1 week subgroups. The He-Ne laser is more effective than Aloe vera since it reduced significantly the inflammation and fibrosis.

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Author: Braulio Galdino de Araujo
Original Title: Evaluation of the dichloromethane fraction of the hydroalcoholic extract of Aroeira (Schinus Terebinthifolius Raddi) and the aqueous extract of the mesocarp of Babaçu (Orbignya phalerata) in the wound healing process in rat skin

Introduction: The dichloromethane fraction of the hydroalcoholic extractof Schinus sterebinthifolius Raddi (Aroeira) and the aqueous extract of Orbignya phalerata (Babaçu) mesocarp have been used in experimental studies trying to check their pro-inflammatory action. Objective: Analyze through macroscopic study, digital planimetry and microscopic study, the dichloromethane fraction of the hydroalcoholic extractof aroeira and the aqueous extract of babaçu mesocarp in wound healing in rats skin. Methods: were used 54 Wistar rats, adults. The experimental procedure constituted into aincision of 2-inch diameter on the skin after marking with metalic punch in dorsocostal region. The animals were randomly divided into three groups containing 18 animals. In control group (Gc) was used sodium chloride 0.9%. In the experiments groups used the dichloromethane fraction of the hydroalcoholic extractof aroeira (Ga) and the aqueous extract of babaçu mesocarp (Gbç) in topical use. The animais were killed in 7, 14 and 21 days. A 3-inch diameter skin fragment was removed from each animal. The lesions’ areas were analyzed by means of macroscopy and digital planimetry and the wounds’ resected segments were analyzed by optical microscopy using hematoxylin - eosin, Masson trichrome and Picrosirius Red. The data were analyzed using the statistcal program IBM SPSS Statistics® 20.0. In all tests the level of significance (α) was 5% (p < 0.05). Results: All animals showed healing of the skin without signals of infection and hemorrhage. In the planimetry, the mean of Ga was lower than Gbç and these were lower than Gc on 7th day with significance however on day 14 Gbç presented less area than the others with significance. The histological study showed statistical difference in mononuclear variables, polymorphonuclear and collagen fibers on the 7th day. On day 14 it was found significance in vascular proliferation and reepithelialization; on day 21 there was significance in vascular proliferation and reepithelialization. Conclusion: Grossly Ga showed up with a better evolution in the formation of crusts in relation to other groups with statistical significant. In the digital planimetric analysis showed that the Gbç was higher scar retraction. In Ga it was noticed better healing for the presence of mononuclear cells, polymorphonuclear cells on the 7th day. On day 14 the Ga showed better fibroblast proliferation and reepithelialization. On day 21 Ga presented higher as in vascular proliferation and reepithelialization.

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Author: Alberto Rodrigues de Miranda Filho
Original Title: Evaluation of the hydroalcoholic extract of Aroeira (Schinus Terebinthifolius Raddi) and Andiroba oil (Carapa Guianensis Aublet) in the wound healing process in rat skin

Introduction: Wound healing is usually a tissue response to an injury (usually in the skin), resulting in an interruption of the fabric. It is a dynamic and complex process, and in which the use of herbal medicines have been increasingly used, especially skin lesions. Objective: Evaluate the healing effect of the hydralcoholic extract of aroeira and andiroba oil in open wounds in skin of rats through the macroscopic, planimetric and mycroscopic analysis. Method: Was used 54 Wistar rats submitted to ressection of a 2 cm diameter skin fragment, allocated in three groups of 18 animals, labeled: control group (GC), aroeira group (GA), andiroba group (GD). Eache group was divided in three minor groups of six animals following the time of death: seven, fourteen and twenty one, in wich were collected fragments for macroscopics and microscopics evaluation. Were evaluated the presence of hemorrhage, crustas and reepitelization, macroscopic and per digital planimetry; microscopically, using colorations of Hematoxilin Eosine and Trichromium of Masson, analised the presence of polymorphonuclear, mononuclear, vascular and fibroblastic proliferation , colagenization and reepitelization. Results: All the animals showed good healing, without signals of infection of hemorrhage. According to planimetry, the average of wound áreas of GA (0,53cm²) had been smaller than of GD (0,71cm²) and these smaller than the GC (0,84cm²) by the 7th day, with statistical difference. The histological study showed statistic difference in polimorphonuclear, mononuclear and vascular proliferation by the 7th day. In the 14th day, statistical significance was found only in fibroblast proliferation, at day 21, only on the vascular proliferation. Conclusion: Against the planimetric analysis, the aroeira group showed higher healing wound contraction. Among the histologycal analysis, we can conclude that in the aroeira and andiroba groups showed better healing concerning to polimorphonuclear and mononuclear cells by the 7th day and to fibroblastic proliferation by the 14th day. About the vascular proliferation, was observed statistical significance only in the aroeira group by the 7th day.

Keywords: Healing, Skin, Aroeira (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi), Andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aublet).

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 Artigo: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_pdf&pid=S0102-86502006000800004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=pt

 

 

 

DOCTORATE

Author: Fernando Issamu Tabushi
Original Title: Vertical gastrectomy in overweight and non-overweight rats

The objective of this study was to compare in a prospective, randomized study, the suture technique on two levels (total and seromuscular) after partial gastrectomy in obese mice and normal mice. 40 Wistar rats were used divided into two groups, A and B, twenty animals each. Group A received normal food and water. The B group received normal food and a supplement of sucrose in water. When the group B progressed to weight statistically higher than those of group A the experiment took place (type sleeve gastrectomy) and gastrorraphy in two planes (total and seromuscular). The animals of each group were divided in two subgroups of 10 animals. Group A, normal subgroups A1 and A2 and group B obese subgroups B1 and B2. The animals subgroups A1 and B1, A2 and B2 were dead at 7th and 14th days after the operation, respectively. We studied the mortality, morbidity, complications attributable to gastric suture, biochemical (blood count, glucose, urea, creatinine, TAP, RNI, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, AST, ALT,bilirubin, and insulin), index LEE, macroscopic, retroperitoneal fat weight and gonadal optical microscopy withhematoxylin-eosin and picrosirius-red. Results: The obese group achieved statistically higher weight after 16 weeks, there were no deaths or complications with clinical consequences attributable morbidity. The obese group showed statistically greater weight of gonadal and retroperitoneal fat. In hematological studies the dosage of glucose, creatinine, AST, ALT, gama gt, tap, rni, HDL, LDL, triglycerides and insulin showed no statistical difference. This difference was observed at doses of urea, albumin, total cholesterol and indirect bilirubin. The study of optical microscopy and picrisírius-red showed no statistical difference. We conclude that: a)There was no statistical difference in relation to evolution and macroscopic. b) The urea, albumin, total cholesterol and bilirubin showed a statistical difference. c) There was no statistical difference in the microscopic evaluation by hematoxylin-eosin and picrosirius-redstaining between groups A and B. d) Although there was no statistical difference in the evaluation of collagen typs between groups A and B, there was a tendency for the obese to have fewer collagen type I and more collagen type III.

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Artigo: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27828603

 

 

Author: Manoel Lages Castello Branco Netto
Original Title: Evaluation of hydroalcoholic extract of Aroeira (Shinus Terebinthifolius Raddi) in the healing process of wound skin in rats

Introduction: Historically, man tries to interfere with the healing process using products derived from plants, among which are the aroeira (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) and andiroba (Carapa Guianensis Aublet), with widespread use in our country . However, the use of plants in folk medicine has occurred indiscriminately, often without strong scientific basis. Objective: The purpose of this study, conducted at the Laboratory of Experimental Surgery, Federal University of Maranhão, was to evaluate the healing effect of topical administration of the dichloromethane fraction of the hydroalcoholic extract of aroeira and andiroba oil on open wounds in rats’ dorsocostal region. Methods: 54 Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups of 18 animals: the aroeira group, submitted to the application of dichloromethane fraction of the hydroalcoholic extract; the andiroba group, that received application of the oil, and the control group, which received application of saline Each group was divided into 3 subgroups of 6 animals according to the observation period: 7, 14 or 21 days. A 2-inch diameter skin fragment was removed from each animal. The lesions’ areas were analyzed by means of macroscopy and digital planimetry and the wounds’ resected segments were analyzed by optical microscopy using hematoxylin - eosin and picrosirius red. Immunological evaluation of IL-1, IL-4 and TNF was also conducted. The results were analyzed using IBM SPSS® Statistics 20.0. Results: Regarding macroscopic findings, reepithelialization did not differ between the groups. Digital planimetry showed that mean wound areas of the aroeira group (0.28 cm2) were lower than those of andiroba and control groups, which were similar (0.34 cm2). These findings were observed at 7 days post- surgery (p=0.025). Histological analysis showed significant differences in polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells and vascular proliferating on the 7th day; favorable fibroblastic proliferation was observed on day 14 in aroeira and andiroba groups; and vascular proliferation present only in aroeira group on day 21. The analysis of young and mature collagen’s density showed no differences between the groups at any time of the evaluation. Evaluation of the levels of IL-1, IL-4 and TNF showed no differences at all times. Conclusions: It is concluded that the mean wound areas of rats treated with aroeira were significantly lower than those treated with andiroba, which were also smaller than those treated with saline; fibroblast proliferation was favorable to the aroeira and andiroba groups, and there were no significant differences between groups regarding the density of collagen and analysis of cytokines in the 3 evaluation times.

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